Private James H. Quinn Square

1509_Page_01Project Statement
Located at the gateway to Central Falls, the renovation of Quinn Square sets the tone for the transformation of the downtown core, simultaneously breathing new life into an underutilized  public space while acting as a catalyst for an active, vibrant streetscape in this diverse community.  Operating  at the scale of a small urban park, it provides a consistent seasonal burst of color, texture and pattern while also serving as a fitting space for memorial observations.

Project Narrative

Site History and Context
Quinn Square was originally dedicated in 1933 to honor the service of Private James H. Quinn, a young Central Falls resident killed in action during the Great World War on November 7, 1918, just four days before Armistice Day. It is located at the gateway to downtown  Central Falls, at the intersection of West Hunt and Dexter Streets, directly across from St. Matthew’s Church.  The site was chosen for its proximity to the church- a National Register of Historic Places landmark designed in 1929 by the famed Rhode Island architect Walter F. Fontaine- for Veterans Day (then referred to as Armistice Day) and Memorial  Day (then referred to as Decoration Day) observances.  Originally a revered destination for war veterans and their families, Quinn Square subsequently suffered from decades of benign neglect and lack of maintenance, as Central Falls slipped from prominence as an industrial and manufacturing hub.  An urban renewal intervention in the early 1980’s attempted to restore the Square, but again the area slowly receded into disrepair.

Project Initiation
Already reeling from the decades-long  departure of manufacturing jobs, Central Falls was one of Rhode Island’s hardest hit cities during the recent Great Recession. Quinn Square’s location at the gateway to the downtown area beeame an unwanted symbol of the challenges facing the community.  Tackling these challenges head on, the city engaged in a unique program of public/private partnership  in an effort to restore activity and public life in its urban spaces. At Quinn Square, the bar was raised for the entire community: a complete renovation of the Square was proposed and funded by a prominent adjacent business. Its goal: restore the gateway to the city to its former status, and in turn act as a catalyst for the rebirth of the downtown  area.

Program Development and Design Intent
Working closely with project stakeholders, the landscape architect developed a Master Plan for Quinn Square that satisfied the programmatic  goals and requirements of the client, the city, and the Central Falls Veterans Couneil.  Upon approval of the Master Plan, the landscape architect was the lead consultant in charge of the renovation to the Square, from Schematic Design through Post Construction Occupancy.

The single most important  program  requirement of the city and the Veterans CounciI was the need to maintain the originaI memorial monument, built from the same Weymouth granite as St. Matthew’s Church, in its current location.  Viewing this requirement as an opportunity rather than a constraint, the land­ scape architect developed a solution that highlighted  the monument  as the organizing design element, allowing it to reassume its rightful place of promi­ nence.

The landscape narrative was greatly influenced by the veterans.  While most memorial spaces are programmed to tell the stories of those who were lost, the physical form of the landscape at Quinn Square instead evolved into a simple allegory  for healing wounds.  Healing the Square, allowing it to regenerate and ultimately bring new life to this location, was viewed as an appropriate way to memorialize all veterans, not just those who were lost.

Alternating bands of lawn and low profile planters containing  undulating swaths of native shrubs, ornamental grasses and perennials created the coordinat­ ing geometry for the site, forming a tapestry of color that covers the square in four season interest.  The bands of planters “regenerate” each year- bringing new life to the park with each passing season. In the spring and summer, blooms from perennials specifically chosen and located for their color and bloom time, such as Yarrow, Sages, Goldenrod, Globe Thistle, Coneflower, Milkweed, and Gay feather intertwine with the blooming ornamental grasses. The strong scent of the swaths of Mountain Mint attracts butterflies by the hundreds.   Red twig and yellow twig dogwood create a visually striking scene in the winter while combined with dormant  Heavy Metal Switch Grass, Feather Reed Grass, Purple Love Grass and Silver Grass. The planter beds are surrounded  by low profile poured-in-place white concrete bands.  The height of the bands (3″) is set to match the mowed grass height, creating a consistent horizontal datum across the pervious ground  plane while creating a frame for the plantings that does not compete with nor detract from them.  The subtle height difference between the lawn/planters and the pavement areas creates sufficient separation while still welcoming users into the green areas of the park.  Large caliper Commendation Elms and Pin Oaks dot the lawn areas, creating shaded refuge in the summer, striking color in the fall, and a unique silhouette in the winter. The trees were specifically placed only in lawn areas to maximize program  flexibility, allowing park users the opportunity to sit on the lawn under a tree rather than on a bench.

Pedestrian circulation and memorial gathering spaces are accommodated through  a simple set of linear walkways that bisect the site and create a fully ADA accessible series of paths- a critical element at a gathering space for veterans.  The east-west walkway passes in front of the monument, its width sufficient to allow for seating.  The north-south walkway is set on an axis with the monument  to emphasize its prominence, and also includes areas for seating.  The dark charcoal color of the concrete walkways was selected to create contrast with the striking greens of the lawn and planters.  The walkways are constructed with sawcut control joints set in diagonal patterns to subtly reflect the wedge shape ofthe planter bands. The walkways also act as a gathering space for events and services.

Sustainability Initiatives
Creating a more sustainable landscape was a critical part of the program.   The new site design was organized around a series of sustainability measures that minimized impervious  surfaces and diverted  runoff from entering the local municipal combined sewer system. Pre-renovation, Quinn Square was comprised of 74% impervious  surface, all of which fed into the combined  city system, which discharges directly into Narragansett Bay. The redesign reduced impervious area to 19%, all of which are high albedo surfaces. The on-site infiltration strategies included the introduction of a series of drywells that capture 100% of stormwater runoff and infiltrate it in-situ.  In addition, traditional sustainability benefits were realized through carbon reduction and generation of oxygen (by reintroducing  healthy, large caliper deciduous trees to the landscape) and heat-island reduction (through the aforementioned introduction of greatly decreased impervious  areas and high albedo pavements).  Native, locally sourced large caliper deciduous shade trees and large shrub/ornamental grass/pe­ rennial beds were planted, which increased shade and reduced water loss from transpiration and evapotranspiration, thus greatly improving water use effi ciency. Finally, site lighting was specifically designed to reduce light pollution and maximize energy efficiency.

Local Significance
The landscape architect integrated traditional materials into a contemporary aesthetic, creating a clear hierarchy of spaces while maintaining flexibility in its use. The incorporation of these new features highlight the role ofthe Quinn Square landscape as a medium  that can simultaneously address complex site engineering and sustainability issues while still developing a destination landscape that creates a unique sense of place and acts as a focal element for the community.  Quinn Square has once again become the site of the annual Memorial Day and Veterans Day ceremonies, and the construction of streetscape improvements for Dexter Street are now underway to further transform the diverse downtown area.